Stem cells from a donor are collected and transferred into the bloodstream of someone who has damaged or destroyed their stem cells.

Allogeneic stem cell transplants can be used to treat many diseases. Blood conditions, immune disorders, and blood cancers are some examples.

Stem cell transplants are sometimes called bone marrow transplants or simply stem cell transplants, depending on the source of the cells.

“Stem cell transplants can be done from a donor’s bone marrow or from a donor’s cord blood, but the cells can also be taken from a healthy donor.”

If your own stem cells are collected and then returned to your body, this is a different procedure called an autologous stem cell transplant.

You can learn more about what an allogeneic stem cell transplant is, how it can help, and who is a good candidate for the procedure.

The steps of an allogenic stem cell transplant.

Stem cell transplants replace damaged blood stem cells with healthy ones. Blood (hematopoietic) stem cells are produced in your bone marrow, which is the soft tissue inside of your bones. These are stem cells that can develop into:

  • Red blood cells carry oxygen.
  • White blood cells are used to fight infections.
  • Your blood clot is aided by platelets.

“Billions of new blood cells are produced every day by your stem cells. This process is important to the proper functioning of your immune system. If your bone marrow isn’t producing enough blood cells, you may benefit from a transplant”

Doctors will need to destroy your stem cells and weaken your immune system in order to prepare you for a transplant. This requires a process called conditioning, which involves high doses of chemotherapy and radiation.

Stem cells donated for a stem cell transplant start making blood cells. This process is called engraftment. A successful transplant will help reset your immune system and fight off cancer cells.

The graft vs. tumor effect

A stem cell transplant is a procedure in which the cells are removed and replaced with another cell. The immune cells from your donor are contained in the graft.

Immune cells can attack your cells if they recognize them. The cancer cells in your blood can be fought with the help of the graft.

Not everyone is a good candidate for a stem cell transplant. The conditioning process can be very difficult on the body.

Older people and people with poor health may not be able to tolerate the conditioning process. This is also true of people who have malfunctioning organs.

Doctors will make sure that your systems are working. The systems that are included are:

You must be prepared to undergo the procedure and follow up care.

You can stay in the hospital for a while after the transplant. You may need to be isolated for a long time. Your immune system can take a year or more to mature.

Your doctor will be able to explain your risks in more detail.

Before receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplant, you’ll need to go through a conditioning process. Sometimes called myeloablation, this regimen typically consists of high dose chemotherapy, whole body radiation therapy, or both.

The conditioning process is meant to destroy cells. It damages your bone marrow and blood stem cells. The process makes it easier for the donor cells to enter your bone marrow.

The destruction of your immune system is one of the risks that come with conditioning. This is a calculated risk because it reduces the chance that your body will reject the transplant.

The conditioning process usually takes about a week, and you can expect to stay in the hospital throughout that time.

The intense conditioning process for a stem cell transplant can be dangerous for some people. Reduced-intensity conditioning may be an option.

“The doses of reduced-toxicity conditioning are lower than they are for radiation therapy. Your immune system won’t be destroyed.”

This may sound good, but it increases the likelihood that your body will reject the transplant. For this reason, the reduced-intensity conditioning process sometimes includes immunosuppressant medications.

The use of allogeneic stem cell transplants has been on the rise with older adults over the last decade. This has led to wider adoption of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens.

Not everyone is a good candidate for this type of treatment. If you are matched to a donor that is compatible with your condition, you can be culturacy.

Reduced-intensity regimen may be more effective than traditional conditioning in treating some diseases.

“A stem cell donor needs to have a similar genetic profile to their body so that it won’t reject the transplant.”

Close family members are most likely to match. Siblings, specifically, have a 1 in 4 chance of being a match. Identical twins, however, may not make good donor donors. This is because their cells are too similar and they may share genetic defects.

If no close family members are a match or able to donate, there are donor programs available to help match potential donors with those in need of stem cells.

Stem cells can be found in the umbilical cord blood. At the time of birth, umbrals can be donated. One cord blood donation is not likely to have enough stem cells for an adult transplant recipient.

You will need a lot of medication during the conditioning process. A central line is a tube that is inserted into your chest. The tube will be left in after the transplant.

You might need to recover for a few days before the transplant.

“Stem cells will be passed into your body using the existing tube when you need a transplant. It won’t feel different than having medication. It doesn’t hurt, and you will be awake for a couple of hours.”

The risks from stem cell transplant are caused by your reduced immune response. You will be at higher risk of getting infections from things like viruses andbacteria.

You might need to take medication to fight infections. You can expect to be in a clean environment in the hospital until your immune system replenishes.

Graft-versus-host disease is a possible side effect of an allogeneic stem cell transplant. The donated cells can attack your body because it identifies it as foreign.

GVHD is common, occurring up to 50 percent of the time when the donor is a sibling. It can be very serious, or even fatal.

There are some factors that increase the likelihood ofGVHD.

  • The degree of mismatch is greater.
  • Older person is a donor or recipient.
  • Less intensive conditioning

You will have a reduced number of red and white blood cells and platelets after the transplant.

If your cell counts are not back to normal you may need to take medication to treat infections. It could take a year or two.

Fevers can happen. It’s important that you contact your transplant care team any time you get a fever.

You might also need one or more blood transfusions during this time. You should expect to take additional drugs to prevent GVHD as well. This may include a combination of cyclosporine and methotrexate for several months after the transplant.

You could feel a range of emotions, from joy to depression.

“Doctors will keep an eye on you with blood tests. At your doctor’s discretion, these visits will become less frequent at the beginning, but will become more frequent at the end.”

1. What conditions are treated with allogeneic stem cell transplant?

Some diseases treated with allogeneic stem cell transplants include:

Allogeneic stem cell transplants are being used for the treatment of diseases.

2. What is the survival rate of allogeneic stem cell transplants?

Many people who have allogeneic stem cell transplants have other conditions, which makes the question complex. Infections and Graft are the main causes of the procedure.

Depending on the type of disease being treated and how well the donor and recipient are matched, the risks of a transplant vary.

3. Is stem cell transplant a major surgery?

There is no surgical intervention in a stem cell transplant. The cells are given through an IV line.

The process can take a couple of weeks between the time of the treatment and the time of recovery. The infusion takes a few hours.

“It should be painless, so you won’t need anesthesia.”

4. What happens if a stem cell transplant fails?

You can sometimes try a second transplant, but it is dependent on your situation and your health. If the transplant fails, your doctor will recommend other treatment options.

Stem cells come from a donor other than yourself in an allogeneic stem cell transplant. The stem cells will be injected into you.

You will need to undergo conditioning with intensive chemotherapy, radiation therapy or both before the transplant. A reduced-intensity conditioning process can be considered.

You could match with a stranger through a donor registry if you were a good match for a donor.

There are risks associated with a weakened immune system.