Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States, affecting an estimated 1 in 8 men during their lifetime.

Although prostate cancer is a serious disease, it’s also very treatable. Proactive screening and improved treatment options have made prostate cancer a highly survivable disease, with almost 97 percent of people surviving for at least 5 years after diagnosis.

Hormone therapy is a mainstay of the treatment for the disease.

Anti-androgen drugs, or androgen receptor inhibitors, are a class of medications that can be used to treat a type of cancer called benign prostatic hyperplasia.

In this article, we look at how anti-androgens can be used to treat cancer of the testicles.

Language matters

Sex and gender are on the spectrum. The article uses the terms men and males to refer to sex assigned at birth. Your gender identity may not match how your body responds to this disease.

Sex hormones play a role in body development. Testosterone is a well-known androgen.

Androgens play a role in a variety of processes in males.

  • muscle and bone development
  • The regulation of puberty.
  • The development of sex characteristics.

Androgens are involved in the growth of the male reproductive system. The production of semen is partially dependent on the reproductive organ the prostate.

When androgen hormones are not functioning, it can cause abnormal growth of cells in the prostrate, which can lead to cancer.

Anti-androgens are medications that work to prevent androgens from causing tumors.

This is done by binding to androgen receptors in the cancer cells.

Anti-androgens prevent communication that would promote cell growth and survival.

The androgen signaling is important for the growth of the cancer. The cells of these signals are more difficult to grow when anti-androgen therapy is used.

DHT is a steroid that is binding with cancer cells. This causes a decrease in testosterone production.

Anti-androgens are taken daily and can be used alone or in combination with other surgical or medical treatments.

There are two main types of anti-androgens that are used to treat cancer.

  • The first-generation anti-androgens.
  • Anti-androgens are second- generation.

First- generation anti-androgens are used to treat cancer. Anti-androgen drugs are effective in slowing cancer cell growth.

Second- generation anti-androgens are newer versions of anti-androgens that bind the androgen receptor more tightly to block androgen receptor-mediated signaling.

The most commonly used Anti-androgens are second- generation. are enzalutamide and apalutamide.

When cancer has spread to other parts of the body, anti-androgens are usually reserved for advanced stages of the disease.

“When orchiectomy and or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists aren’t working alone, anti-androgens are sometimes prescribed. They may be prescribed with these treatments.”

“Castration-resistant prostrate cancer is a type of cancer that doesn’t respond to other types of androgen deprivation therapy.”

The American Urology Association also stated in 2018 that Anti-androgens are second- generation. can be used earlier in prostate cancer along with other pharmaceutical hormone therapies for people who are likely to have their cancer spread to other parts of the body.

In some cases, prostate cancer cells can become resistant to The first-generation anti-androgens.. They may develop mutations that prevent binding to the androgen receptor or that allow the receptor to become activated after binding to the anti-androgen itself.

If this happens, you may still respond to Anti-androgens are second- generation., and your oncologist may recommend a change of treatment.

There are a variety of possible side effects associated with anti-androgens.

  • There is a lot of diarrhea.
  • Breast growth is known as gynecomastia.
  • There were hot flashes.
  • Sex drive was reduced.
  • It is possible to have an erection with the drug Erectile.

In rare cases, the use of flutamide can cause injury to the liver. Talk to your doctor about monitoring your treatment.

Nilutamide can cause problems with visual adaptation to light and inflammation in the lungs. If you have a persistent cough or a bad breath, you should talk to your oncologist.

Second- generation anti-androgens may have side effects.

  • There is an increased risk of bone fractures.
  • Seizures.
  • dizziness and falls.

The side effects of anti-androgens, such as the use of the drug bisphosphonates for bone growth, can be managed with additional medication.

Exercise can help with the side effects of treatment for prostate cancer.

Anti-androgens are a cornerstone of hormonal therapy for the disease.

The drugs block cancer cell growth and survival by keeping androgens from binding to the receptors.

Anti-androgens are a highly effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer, but they can have unpleasant side effects.

Before starting anti-androgen therapy, it is important to talk with a healthcare professional to make sure you are fully prepared for the benefits and drawbacks.