Recognizing and Treating Anxiety and Depression in Children
Anxiety and depression don’t affect only adults. From 2013 to 2019,
Depression and anxiety in children and adolescents may be present.
- generalized anxiety
- There are fears of phobias.
- separation anxiety
- panic disorder is a disorder.
- Depressive disorder is persistent.
- Major depression.
If your child has anxiety, they may experience uncontrollable fear with certaintriggers. They may have a pounding heart and trouble breathing because of their fear of the future.
If your child has depression, they may feel sad and irritable a lot of the time. They may show changes in eating and sleeping patterns, lose interest in activities, or even engage in self-harm.
We’ll review some of the common signs of anxiety and depression in children, and how to offer support.
Children can sometimes feel anxious. Younger children are not always able to express their feelings.
“Children may not have developed enough self-awareness to know what they are feeling. Sometimes they can’t put their feelings into words when they sense something isn’t right.”
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force is expected to recommend that children as young as 8 years old be screened for anxiety. They’re also considering screening adolescents as young as 12 years old for depression.
You can help detect the disorders earlier by recognizing the signs and symptoms.
Signs of anxiety
According to the
- There are excessive fears about family, friends, and activities.
- worry about the future
- Changes in sleeping and eating habits.
- There are physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachache, and muscle aches.
- Is it restless or upset?
- Fear of being embarrassed or making mistakes.
Signs of depression
- It feels sad and lonely.
- The activities that were enjoyable were lost.
- Changes in sleeping and eating habits.
- Listless behavior and feeling fatigued.
- Concentration has been lost.
- feeling guilty.
- thoughts of death or suicide
Mental health check-in with your child
When you talk to your child, you give them a message that is important to you. Here are some questions that can help you understand their mental health.
- Who are you friends with? What do you do with them?
- What are you feeling? Give them a range of feelings, like happy, sad, angry, or frustrated.
- What are you thinking before you fall asleep?
- What do you like to do?
- Do you have headaches?
Your doctor will need to rule out other conditions if he or she diagnoses your child with anxiety or depression. There are a number of conditions that are similar to anxiety and depression.
- Panic disorder. Panic attacks are episodes of extreme fear that come for no apparent reason. Your child may react to these unexpected feelings of fear with shaking, sweating, rapid heartbeat, and feeling like they are dying.
- Social anxiety disorder. This is more than exaggerated shyness. Children with social anxiety disorder experience such intense anxiety in social settings that they choose to avoid them entirely.
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD can develop in children who have experienced trauma. Symptoms can include difficulty sleeping and concentrating, feeling jumpy, and being easily irritated.
- Bipolar disorder. This involves periods of intense lows that may include the symptoms of depression. Unlike with depression, however, people with bipolar disorder also experience periods of high moods.
If untreated, anxiety and depression can negatively affect your child’s social life and academic goals. This can lead them to drop out of school, use substances, have trouble with relationships, and even think about or attempt suicide.
According to the
Some doctors may prescribe medication to treat symptoms. Options include:
- sertraline (Zoloft)
- escitalopram (Lexapro)
- fluvoxamine (Luvox)
- clomipramine (Anafranil)
- fluoxetine (Prozac)
In rare cases, children, teenagers, and young adults
If your child is having suicidal thoughts after taking a new medication, talk to a doctor.
Is your child having suicidal thoughts?
If your child or teenager is thinking about suicide, there are many suicide prevention resources that you can turn to for help.
- The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is available 24/7 at 800-273-8255.
- Text “HOME” to the Crisis Text Line at 741741 to chat with a trained crisis counselor.
- Befrienders Worldwide offers resources for parents and young people all over the world.
- MY3 Support Network is an app for people experiencing thoughts of suicide. It offers resources, coping strategies, and a safety plan template.
Stay with your child and get help if you need it. Let emergency services know that your child is in a crisis. They will help you find the proper support in your area.
Therapy can complement medication.
- Play, art, and drama therapy. This can help younger children who may be unable to express their feelings directly.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This approach is effective in older children. CBT can help your child replace negative thoughts with more positive, effective ways of thinking. This can lead to more effective behavior.
- Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). According to 2015 research, this uses acceptance and mindfulness techniques to help children learn to live in the moment. Children also learn to stop self-judging and, in this way, cope with unwanted thoughts or behaviors.
- Mindfulness. Mindfulness can be part of CBT or stress reduction.
Research from 2015shows that mindfulness can help with anxiety disorders in youth.
- Interpersonal psychotherapy. This approach can help your child communicate better with others and works to resolve relationship issues that lead to depression or anxiety.
- E-therapy. According to a
2019 study, e-therapy involves computerized treatment programs. These involve the child completing 10 to 12 computerized CBT sessions, with some additional sessions for parents.
If you’re interested in natural methods, you may consider yoga with your child. A 2020 review noted that yoga led to reduced anxiety and depression in young people.
Many people take St. John’s wort as an herbal remedy for anxiety and depression. But the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The safety and effectiveness of other dietary supplements, including omega-3 fatty acids and S-adenosylmethionine, are being studied.
For more information on herbal remedies, other complementary approaches, and current research, you can visit the
Lifestyle factors are a promising avenue for helpful treatments for depression and anxiety. The American College of Lifestyle Medicine defines six core features of a healthy lifestyle:
- Doing regular physical activities.
- A diet with lots of plants and whole foods.
- “Getting a good night’s sleep.”
- Managing stress.
- avoiding substance use.
- Making positive social connections.
How to find help
You may need support when your child is going through a difficult time. There are many resources that can help you find the support you need.
- American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
- The Anxiety and Depression Association of America is a national organization.
- The Balanced Mind Parent Network is a group of parents.
There are possible risk factors for anxiety and depression.
- Age. A
2021 studyshowed that as children move into adolescence, they are at a greater risk of developing anxiety and depression.
- Gender. An older study showed that starting around ages
13 to 15, girls are twice as likely as boys to show signs of depression.
- Race and Ethnicity. According to a
2010 review, children who are not non-Latinx whites are at a higher risk of anxiety and depression. This may be due to disparities in the health care system.
- Overall health. A 2020 study suggests children with chronic or severe medical conditions are more likely to be depressed.
- Hormonal imbalance.
Research from 2017shows that imbalances of certain chemicals or hormones, including cortisol, may increase the risk of depression.
Research from 2017shows that children with sensitive temperaments, early life stress, and parents with mood disorders may have an increased risk of anxiety and depression.
COVID-19 and anxiety and depression in children
Research from 2021shows that the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic doubled. The rates were higher when collected later in the pandemic, in older adolescents, and in girls.
According to 2019 research, prevention of anxiety and depression in children should begin at an early age. A 2020 study suggests that developing social, emotional, and cognitive skills is key to preventing anxiety and depression.
The following steps can help prevent depression in children.
- Your child should be told to speak about their feelings.
- Keep your expectations realistic.
- Your child has feelings.
- Where possible, create regular daily routines.
- Model healthy eating and sleeping habits.
Can very young children get anxiety or depression?
Yes, preschoolers can also get anxiety and depression. A 2017 review estimated that
Will my child’s anxiety or depression go away?
Yes. Most children can learn to manage their anxiety and depression with early intervention and a combination of therapy and medication. For some children, depression and anxiety may remain lifelong conditions.
Can I pass my anxiety or depression on to my child?
It’s important to remember that just because you have anxiety and depression does not mean your children will develop it. Depression has plenty of causes.
Children can become anxious and sad at times, but they may be more than just a bad day. If you know the signs of anxiety and depression, you can help your child get the right treatment.
It may seem overwhelming at first, but the journey you travel together toward healing may be one of the most meaningful journeys of your life.