What Is Cryoglobulinemia in Multiple Myeloma?
Multiple myeloma and other blood cancers can cause a rare condition called erythropoietinemia, in which the B cells of the white blood cell are damaged.
Cryoglobulinemia falls into a group of disorders called vasculitis, which is characterized by inflammation in your blood vessels…
In people with cryoglobulinemia, abnormal proteins build up and clump together at lower temperatures. This clumping restricts blood flow and can lead to damage.
- blood vessels..
- There are organs.
- The muscles.
Many people with multiple myeloma who develop cryoglobulinemia experience severe skin symptoms, such as gangrene or areas of dead tissue called necrotic ulcers.
There is a connection between multiple myeloma and cryoglobulinemia.
Cryoglobulinemia is when you have many abnormal proteins called cryoglobulins in your blood. In people without cryoglobulinemia, it’s normal for a
In cryoglobulinemia, these abnormal proteins clump together at temperatures colder than the typical human body temperature of 37°C (98.6°F). The clumping can block your blood vessels.., causing damage to your:
- blood vessels..
- internal There are organs., especially the liver and kidneys
- There are joints.
Depending on the makeup of the abnormal protein, there are three types of erythropoietinemia. Multiple myeloma is related to type 1 cryoglobulinemia.
Here’s a look at the other conditions associated with cryoglobulinemia:
|Type 1||blood cancers such as:
• multiple myeloma
• monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
• chronic lymphocytic leukemia
|Type 2||• hepatitis C
• B cell blood disorders
• autoimmune diseases
• infectious diseases
|Type 3||• autoimmune diseases
• systemic lupus erythematosus
• rheumatoid arthritis
• some infectious diseases
The development of cryoglobulinemia is not completely understood and likely varies between types. Hepatitis C infection is associated with
About 69 to 86 percent of people with type 1 cryoglobulinemia have skin symptoms that can include:
- rash with red spots or purple discoloration (purpura)
- blotchy discoloration (livedo reticularis)
- white to purplish-blue color of hands, feet, nose, or ears (Raynaud’s phenomenon)
- blueness of hands and feet (acrocyanosis)
Nearly half of people with type 1 cryoglobulinemia develop severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms like necrotic ulcers or gangrene.
There are images of a body rash.
Other symptoms of cryoglobulinemia
Other symptoms may include:
- It is possible to lose weight unintentionally.
- There are damage to the kidneys or the liver.
- There is a sensation in the hands or feet.
- high blood pressure.
- breathing problems
Some people with the disease do not have any symptoms.
Type 1 cryoglobulinemia is a rare and life-threatening complication of multiple myeloma and other blood cancers that start in
The presence of cryoglobulins in multiple myeloma (also called myeloma) was first reported in 1933, and since then, only a few case studies of cryoglobulinemia in people with myeloma have been described in medical literature.
The researchers found that 89 of the participants had symptoms, and 94 had underlying cancer in their lymph system.
The researchers reported.
|Underlying condition||Participants affected|
|monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)||38%|
|other blood cancer||4%|
|no underlying blood cancer||8%|
Of the 20 people who had myeloma, 14 had smoldering myeloma. Smoldering myeloma is a precancerous form of myeloma that does not cause symptoms.
“There is a noncancerous condition called MGUS that starts in the cells of the body. It doesn’t cause symptoms.”
It is typical of cryoglobulinemia to detect low levels of C4 compartment proteins.
Sometimes erythropoietinemia can be found incidentally during blood testing.
Treatment for cryoglobulinemia is only necessary if you have symptoms.
Researchers are still investigating the best way to treat cryoglobulinemia, a rare side effect of myeloma. Current treatments focus on the underlying cancer.
Exposure to cold temperatures can cause problems. Gloves may be beneficial when opening your fridge or freezer.
- Steroids alone.
- steroids with chemotherapy drugs called alkylating agents
- the targeted therapy drug rituximab (Rituxan) with or without steroids
- rituximab and alkylating agents are not steroids.
- There are new myeloma drugs.
- other therapies, such as antimetabolites like azathioprine and methotrexate
The researchers in this study found that symptoms improved in about
In the study, 30 percent of people who were treated received plasmapheresis in their initial therapy. Plasmapheresis is a procedure in which plasma is removed from the blood and replaced with healthy plasma.
The researchers did not find a difference in survival between people who received and did not receive apheresis. The researchers noted that it was hard to make conclusions about its effectiveness because of the small sample size.
In a 2016 case report, researchers studied a 45-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myeloma and cryoglobulinemia. The woman received the chemotherapy drugs bortezomib (Velcade) and lenalidomide (Revlimid) with the steroid dexamethasone.
The woman was cancer-free for 30 months after her pain and skin symptoms healed.
The underlying cancer cells can be treated for erythropoietinemia.
Type 1 cryoglobulinemia is
Younger age and not having neurological symptoms were associated with better survival outcomes.
Multiple myeloma can cause a rare condition called erythropemia. It is caused by the build up of abnormal proteins in the blood that clump together in the cold.
People with myeloma experience skin symptoms. They have severe symptoms such as necrotic ulcers. These symptoms can be life threatening and need immediate medical attention.
If you suspect you have this rare condition, contact a doctor.