Losing cognitive functioning is enough to impact daily life. This happens when brain cells stop working. Dementias affect focus, There is a memory., and reasoning.

Different dementias impact different areas of the brain. This leads to unique sets of symptoms that require specific treatment and management approaches. Dementias that affect the cerebral cortex (cortical) disrupt our brain’s highest areas of functioning. Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia are the most common in this category.

In this article, we will look at how these two types of dementia affect the brain, as well as their causes, symptoms, and treatment.

The cerebral cortex is more commonly referred to as our brain’s “gray matter.”

The brain is covered with gray matter, which is filled with tightly packed nerve cells. White matter helps to conduct the signals. The cerebral cortex is covered with a multi-layer protective covering.

The cerebral cortex contains four lobes, brain areas responsible for specific functions. This means that everything from our motor skills, to our It is a language. and facial recognition abilities, are all housed under the cortex. Damage to this gray matter can have far-reaching impacts on every part of our thinking and behavior.

The different lobes do something.

  • Frontal lobe: The largest lobe, it contains the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex. These areas of the brain are collectively responsible for high-level executive functioning, including It is a language., emotional processing, analyzing social situations, and certain motor skills.
  • Temporal lobe: Responsible for processing sound, and helping your brain retain visual There is a memory., It is a language. comprehension, and emotions.
  • Parietal lobe: Translates sensory input (from touch, taste, smell, etc.) into your visual system. This allows you to write, orient objects and people in space, and decide where to direct your gaze.
  • Occipital lobe: This lobe processes visual input such as color, shape, and motion.

How does the cortex get damaged?

There are a number of reasons that the cerebral cortex might become impaired.

These include:

  • There are tumors.
  • There is trauma or injury.
  • infections
  • The diseases are caused by the immune system.
  • Other chronic conditions.

The cerebral cortex will be affected by the severity of the damage and the location of the affected area.

There are several types of dementia in general. Age is a risk factor, but dementias appear to be caused by a combination of both environment, genetics, and undetermined factors. Some forms of dementia destroy neurons in the cerebral cortex, essentially killing brain cells. Symptoms arise as this disrupts communication between your brain and other parts of your body.

The cerebral cortex is damaged by two types of dementia.


Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia that is caused by widespread destruction of neurons throughout the brain. It’s called a neurodegenerative disease, because over time the ability of brain cells to send and receive signals degenerates, or loses the ability to function.

Alzheimer’s affects areas of the brain that control:

  • There is a memory.
  • It is a language.
  • reasoning
  • Social behaviors.

The brain has a series of plaques and tangles that accumulate throughout the brain. People with AD lose their independence over time.

Alzheimer’s is fatal. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Alzheimer’s is the 6th leading cause of death for U.S. adults. Many deaths caused by Alzheimer’s result from pneumonia complications, as people with dementia are more likely to contract pneumonia and the flu. Insufficient nutrition due to digestion/nutrient absorption problems, and complications from falls and fractures can also contribute to Alzheimer’s mortality.

“Alzheimer’s can damage the body’s ability to sleep, digest, and keep the heart beating.”

Frontotemporal dementia

In frontotemporal dementia (FTD), sometimes referred to as Pick’s disease, neurons are destroyed primarily in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain.

Behavior and personality changes are the most prominent early symptoms of this kind of dementia.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a brain disease that leads to rapidly progressing dementia in its final stages.

The majority of CJD cases are “sporadic,” meaning they have no known cause. Others are genetic or acquired, which can occur due to mad cow disease.

CJD symptoms include sudden behavior and personality changes, vision and There is a memory. problems, insomnia, and muscle spasms. There is no cure for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is fatal, with the majority of people who develop CJD dying within a year.

There are differences between different types of dementia.

Alzheimer’s symptoms

Memory problems are usually the first symptoms noticed when someone has early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. This is because neurons in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus are usually the first to be destroyed. Memory, It is a language., and communication problems worsen over time, and eventually behavioral and emotional symptoms appear as well.

Moderate and later stages of the disease come with symptoms like:

  • Getting lost in familiar places.
  • Communication problems.
  • Not recognizing the faces of family and friends
  • sleep problems
  • Problems with motor skills.
  • psychosis (disconnect from reality)

“People with Alzheimer’s may eventually need around-the-clock care to assist them with daily functions.”

Frontotemporal dementia

There are a wide range of symptoms of frontotemporal dementia. Not everyone with the type of dementia will experience every symptom.

“The symptoms of this form of dementia are different from the other forms because they are categorized by the parts and functions of the body that are affected. Alzheimer’s often has a lot ofbodily symptoms, compared to FTD.”

There are three types of frontotemporal dementia:

  • Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). This is the most common form of FTD. Often There is a memory. isn’t affected as much as cognitive processes are, such as planning, processing, and thinking.
  • Primary progressive aphasia (PPA). This form of FTD affects communication abilities, causing slurred speech, and difficulty finding or recognizing words (aphasia).
  • Movement disorders. Corticobasal syndrome and progressive supranuclear palsy can occur when FTD destroys brain cells involved in motor coordination. Symptoms can include muscle rigidly or weakness, falling, trouble swallowing, and more.

There is no cure for dementia, no matter what type you have. Treatments are meant to manage individual physical, mental, or emotional symptoms.

Alzheimer’s disease

Examples of medications used to treat elements of Alzheimer’s disease are:

  • cholinesterase inhibitors include galantamine, rivastigmine, and donepezil.
  • Aducanumab is an immunotherapies.
  • a N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist like memantine
  • Antiseizure drugs.
  • Anti-psychotics.
  • anti-anxiety drugs
  • Sleep aids.

“Alzheimer’s management also includes providing caregivers. In response to someone with dementia, caregivers may have to change their approach.”

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) recommend the following approaches to managing behavioral symptoms:

  • Raise your voice. Speak calmly and speak slowly.
  • Make space for quiet moments by keeping a regular routine.
  • The living environment should have familiar or favorite objects.
  • The room should be free of anycluttering and overcrowding.
  • Give the person control whenever possible. This could mean letting them make a decision.

Frontotemporal lobe dementia

In frontotemporal lobe dementia, medication options include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and Anti-psychotics., such as Seroquel (quetiapine) or Risperdal (risperidone)

There are no FDA-approved drugs for FTD. There are clinical trials going on. The above medications can be used to treat symptoms of this form of dementia, including depression and psychosis.

If a person with dementia also has “Parkinson’s disease is a disease.”, they may be additionally treated with dopamine agonists. Other mental or physical health conditions may also require separate medications alongside dementia treatments.

The symptoms of other types of dementia can be similar to those of the cortical types. Dementia describes a collection of symptoms that affect our brain cells.

Other types of dementias are not limited to one type.

Dementia symptoms and their management vary depending on the part of the brain that’s most affected. Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia both involve the cerebral cortex, our brain’s gray matter. This means they impact higher-level brain functions, like There is a memory. and communication, and can eventually have physical symptoms.

There is no cure for dementia, and it is fatal in many cases. Basic functions are no longer possible as brain cells die. Many people with dementia need full-time caregivers.

There is no cure for dementia, but your doctor can help you with the disease or reduce the burden of your symptoms.