Diabetes is a disease of the metabolism that causes high blood sugar.

The hormone in your blood is used to store sugar in your cells. Your body can either make too little or too much of the drug, called Insulin, that it uses to treat diabetes.

High blood sugar from diabetes can damage your organs. Taking steps to prevent or manage diabetes can help protect your health.

There are different types of diabetes.

  • Type 1: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. It’s unclear what causes this attack.
  • Type 2: Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood. It’s the most common type—about 90% to 95% of people living with diabetes have type 2.
  • Gestational: Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. Insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.

A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. It’s a different condition in which your kidneys remove too much fluid from your body.

Each type of diabetes has different symptoms, causes and treatments.

Learn more about how these types differ from one another.

Prediabetes is the term that’s used when your blood sugar is higher than expected, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. It occurs when the cells in your body don’t respond to insulin the way they should. This can lead to type 2 diabetes down the road.

Experts suggest that more than 1 in 3 Americans Have prediabetes., but over 80% of people with prediabetes don’t even know it.

Diabetes symptoms can be caused by rising blood sugar.

General symptoms

The symptoms of diabetes include:

Symptoms in men

In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have:

Symptoms in women

Women with diabetes can have symptoms such as:

Type 1 diabetes

There are symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

  • extreme hunger.
  • Increased thirst.
  • It is possible to lose weight unintentionally.
  • frequent urination
  • blurry vision
  • It is a problem of It is a problem of tiredness..

It may result in changes in mood.

Type 2 diabetes

There are symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

  • Increased hunger.
  • Increased thirst.
  • Increased urination.
  • blurry vision
  • It is a problem of It is a problem of tiredness..
  • sores that are slow to heal

It may cause infections. The body is not able to heal if it has high levels of sugar in it.

Gestational diabetes

“People who develop gestational diabetes don’t have any symptoms. During the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy, healthcare professionals will usually perform a blood sugar test or oralglucose tolerance test to detect the condition.”

In rare cases, a person with gestational diabetes will also experience Increased thirst. or urination.

The bottom line

Diabetes symptoms can be so mild that they’re hard to spot at first. Learn which signs should prompt a trip to the doctor.

Different causes are associated with different types of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

Doctors don’t know exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. For some reason, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

Some people have genes. It is possible that a virus causes an immune system attack.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes stems from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Having overweight or obesity increases your risk, too. Carrying extra weight, especially in your belly, makes your cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar.

This condition is found in families. People with family genes are more likely to get type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes

“Gestational diabetes is caused by changes in hormones during pregnancy. The hormones produced by the placenta make a pregnant person’s cells less sensitive to the effects of insulin. High blood sugar can be a problem during a pregnant woman’s uterus.”

People who are overweight when they get pregnant or who gain too much weight during pregnancy are more likely to get gestational diabetes.

The bottom line

Environmental factors and genes play a role in triggering diabetes.

Certain factors increase your risk of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

You’re more likely to get type 1 diabetes if you’re a child or teenager, you have a parent or sibling with the condition, or you carry certain genes that are linked to the disease.

Type 2 diabetes

If you have type 2 diabetes, your risk increases.

Certain racial and ethnic populations are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes.

Adults who have African American, Hispanic or Latino American, or Asian American ancestry are more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes than white adults, according to 2016 research. They’re also more likely to experience decreased quality of care and increased barriers to self-management.

Gestational diabetes

“If you have a higher risk for diabetes, it’s due to gestational diabetes.”

The bottom line

Your family history, environment, and medical conditions can all affect your chances of developing diabetes.

Your body is damaged by high blood sugar. The higher your blood sugar is, the greater your risk for problems.

Complications associated with diabetes include:

Gestational diabetes

The mother and baby can be affected by the diabetes. Complications affecting the baby can be serious.

A pregnant person with gestational diabetes can develop complications such as high blood pressure (preeclampsia) or type 2 diabetes. You may also require cesarean delivery, commonly referred to as a C-section.

The risk of diabetes in future pregnancies increases.

The bottom line

Diabetes can lead to serious medical problems, but you can manage it with medication and lifestyle changes.

Doctors treat diabetes with different drugs. Some are taken by mouth and others are available as injections.

Type 1 diabetes

Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. It replaces the hormone your body isn’t able to produce.

People with type 1 diabetes use various types ofinsulin. They differ in how quickly they start to work.

  • Rapid-acting insulin: starts to work within 15 minutes and its effects last for 2 to 4 hours
  • Short-acting insulin: starts to work within 30 minutes and lasts 3 to 6 hours
  • Intermediate-acting insulin: starts to work within 2 to 4 hours and lasts 12 to 18 hours
  • Long-acting insulin: starts to work 2 hours after injection and lasts up to 24 hours
  • Ultra-long acting insulin: starts to work 6 hours after injection and lasts 36 hours or more
  • Premixed insulin: starts working within 5 to 60 minutes and lasts 10 to 16 hours

Type 2 diabetes

“Some people with type 2 diabetes can benefit from diet and exercise. If lifestyle changes aren’t enough to lower your blood sugar, you’ll need to take medication”

These drugs lower your blood sugar in many ways.

Drug How it works Examples
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors slow your body’s breakdown of sugars and starchy foods acarbose (Precose) and miglitol
biguanides reduce the amount of glucose your liver makes metformin (Glucophage, Riomet)
DPP-4 inhibitors improve your blood sugar without making it drop too low alogliptin (Nesina), linagliptin (Tradjenta), saxagliptin (Onglyza), and sitagliptin (Januvia)
glucagon-like peptides stimulate your pancreas to produce more insulin; slow stomach emptying semaglutide (Ozempic), dulaglutide (Trulicity), exenatide (Byetta), and liraglutide (Victoza)
meglitinides stimulate your pancreas to release more insulin nateglinide and repaglinide
SGLT2 inhibitors release more glucose into the urine canagliflozin (Invokana), dapagliflozin (Farxiga), and empagliflozin (Jardiance)
sulfonylureas stimulate your pancreas to release more insulin glyburide (Glynase), glipizide (Glucotrol), and glimepiride (Amaryl)
thiazolidinediones help insulin work better pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone

You may need to take more than one of these. People with type 2 diabetes are also taking the drug.

Gestational diabetes

If you receive a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, you’ll need to monitor your blood sugar level several times per day during pregnancy. If it’s high, dietary changes and exercise may be enough to bring it down.

Research has found that about 15% to 30% of women who develop gestational diabetes will need insulin to lower their blood sugar. Insulin is safe for the developing baby.

The bottom line

The treatment regimen your doctor recommends will depend on the type of diabetes you have.

Managing diabetes requires healthy eating. Changing your diet may be enough to manage the disease.

Type 1 diabetes

Your blood sugar level can be affected by the types of foods you eat. Blood sugar levels rise quickly when there are too many foods. The increases are gradual because of the presence of fat and the presence of the proteins.

Your medical team may recommend that you limit the amount of carbohydrates you eat each day. You’ll also need to balance your carb intake with your insulin doses.

This guide will show you how to start a type 1 diabetes diet.

Type 2 diabetes

Eating the right foods can help you lose weight and manage your blood sugar.

Eating with type 2 diabetes requires a lot of eating with bicc. A dietitian can help you figure out how much you should eat.

Try to eat small meals throughout the day to keep your blood sugar levels steady. Emphasize healthy foods.

Certain foods can make it hard to manage your blood sugar.

Gestational diabetes

During these 9 months, you and your baby need to eat a balanced diet. Making the right food choices can help you avoid diabetes.

Watch your portion sizes, and limit sugary or salty foods. Although you need some sugar to feed your growing baby, you should avoid eating too much. Check out other do’s and don’ts for healthy eating with gestational diabetes.

The bottom line

If you have access to a registered dietitian, you should work with them. They can help you with your meal plan. The right balance of fat, calories and sugars can help you manage your blood sugar.

Exercise is an essential part of diabetes management. This is true for all types of diabetes.

Staying active helps your cells respond to the drug more effectively. Exercising regularly can help you.

If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, general guidance is to aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise each week. There are currently no separate exercise guidelines for people who have gestational diabetes. But if you’re pregnant, start out slowly and gradually increase your activity level over time to avoid overdoing it.

Diabetes-friendly exercises include:

  • walking
  • swimming
  • dancing
  • The bike is cycling

Talk to your doctor about how to incorporate activity into your diabetes management plan. You may need to check your blood sugar before and after working out and make sure to stay hydrated.

Consider working with a personal trainer or exerciselogist who has experience with people with diabetes. They can help you with a plan that is tailored to your needs.

Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes or is at risk for the condition should be tested. People are routinely tested for gestational diabetes during their second trimester or third trimester of pregnancy.

Doctors use these blood tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:

  • The FPG test is used to measure your blood sugar after you have fasted for 8 hours.
  • The A1C test provides a snapshot of your blood sugar levels over the previous 3 months.

How to diagnose gestational diabetes

To diagnose gestational diabetes, your doctor will test your blood sugar levels between the 24th week and 28th week of pregnancy. There are two types of tests:

  • Glucose challenge test: During a glucose challenge test, your blood sugar is checked an hour after you drink a sugary liquid. If your results are standard, no more testing is done. If blood sugar levels are high, you’ll need to undergo a glucose tolerance test.
  • Glucose tolerance test: During a glucose tolerance test, your blood sugar is checked after you fast overnight. Then you’re given a sugary drink and your blood sugar is re-tested after 1 hour and again after 2 hours. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed if any of these three readings come back noting high blood sugar.

The earlier you are diagnosed with diabetes, the sooner you can start treatment. Find out whether you should get tested, and get more information on tests your doctor might perform.

If you don’t already have a primary care specialist, you can browse doctors in your area through the Healthline FindCare tool.

The immune system issue is the cause of type 1 diabetes. Your genes, age, and other causes of type 2 diabetes are not under your control.

Many other risk factors for diabetes are manageable. Simple changes to your diet and fitness routine are some of the strategies for preventing diabetes.

If you have been diagnosed with prediabetes, here are a few things you can do to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes.

These aren’t the only ways to prevent diabetes. Discover more strategies that may help you avoid this chronic health condition.

People who’ve never had diabetes can suddenly develop gestational diabetes in pregnancy. Hormones produced by the placenta can make your body more resistant to the effects of insulin.

Pre-gestational diabetes

Some people had diabetes before they conceived carry it with them into pregnancy. This is called pre-gestational diabetes.

Risks to your newborn

Diabetes during pregnancy can lead to complications for your newborn, such as There is a problem of jaundice. or breathing problems.

If you have pre-gestational or gestational diabetes, you need to be monitored to prevent problems.

Does gestational diabetes disappear on its own?

Gestational diabetes should go away after you deliver, but it does significantly increase your risk of getting diabetes later. About half of people with gestational diabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes.

Children can get both types of diabetes. Diabetes can damage important organs in young people, so managing blood sugar is important.

Type 1 diabetes

The autoimmune form of diabetes often starts in childhood. One of the main symptoms is Increased urination.. Kids with type 1 diabetes may start wetting the bed after they’ve been toilet trained.

Extreme thirst, fatigue, and hunger are also signs of the condition. It’s important that children with type 1 diabetes get treatment right away. The condition can cause high blood sugar and dehydration, which can be medical emergencies.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile diabetes because type 2 was so rare in children. Now that more children have overweight or obesity, type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in this age group.

“Some children with type 2 diabetes don’t have symptoms. Others may experience it.”

  • Increased thirst.
  • frequent urination
  • extreme fatigue..
  • blurry vision

A physical exam, medical history, and bloodwork are some of the things that can be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes can cause lifelong problems, including heart disease, and can be treated. Your child can manage their blood sugar with healthy eating and exercise.

Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than ever in young people. Learn how to spot the signs so you can report them to your child’s doctor.

Some types of diabetes are caused by factors that are not yours to control. Making better food choices, increasing activity, and losing weight can be prevented by type 2.

“Discuss the risks of diabetes with your doctor. If you are at risk, you should have your blood sugar tested and follow your doctor’s advice for managing your blood sugar.”