Lymphoma is a group of cancers that develop in white blood cells called lymphocytes. The two main categories of lymphoma are Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is more common and can be broken into more than 90 subtypes.

In most cases, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma develops in lymph nodes. About 20 to 30 percent of cases are extranodal, meaning they develop outside of these nodes. The most common place extranodal lymphoma develops is in the Stomach..

“We take a deeper look at extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, including where it develops, how it is diagnosed, and how it is treated.”

“Extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is when the disease develops outside of your immune system. It can be further categorized as:”

  • Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: originates outside of your lymph nodes
  • Secondary extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: spreads from your lymph nodes

Extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can originate in almost any organ. It’s possible to have non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in both nodal and extranodal sites.

The most common place for extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma to develop is inside your Stomach., which makes up about 30 to 40 percent of cases of extranodal lymphoma.

Gastrointestinal symptoms

Symptoms vary widely depending on where the cancer develops. In the Stomach., it can cause many vague and nonspecific symptoms like:

Head and neck symptoms

The next most common place for extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma to develop is in your Either head or neck.. When it develops in the Either head or neck., it most often develops in Waldeyer’s ring, a ring of lymph tissue in your throat that includes your tonsils and adenoids.

About 0.1 to 5 percent of cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma develop in your mouth.

Other places in your head and neck lymphoma can develop include:

  • Eye sockets.
  • The thyroid is not normal.
  • Or the nose.
  • The brain.

“There are a wide range of symptoms of head and neck non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Some of the potential symptoms include:”

The development of extranodal lymphoma seems to be multifactorial and the precise cause of most lymphomas remains unknown.

“White blood cells called lymphocytes are the cause of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Some risk factors have been identified, but it is not clear why this happens.”

“There are general risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.”

  • being over the age of 60
  • “Women are at a higher risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.”
  • Being white.
  • Family history.
  • Exposure to some chemicals.
  • Some drugs are exposed to.
  • Radiation exposure can be harmful.
  • People with HIV have weakened immune system.
  • having some autoimmune conditions like rheumatoid arthritis
  • some types of viruses like human herpes virus 8 and Epstein-Barr virus
  • some other infections like long-term hepatitis C or Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
  • Being overweight or obese is possible.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the second most common cancer in people with HIV. Research suggests people with HIV have a 60 times greater chance of developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma than the general population.

Immunodeficiency is the only known risk factor for lymphomas originating in your central nervous system. Prior to the invention of modern HIV drugs, people with HIV had a 3,600 times higher risk of developing these lymphomas.

People who have had non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are at an increased risk of developing a second cancer.

Different tests are used to diagnose lymphoma. Your doctor will likely start by looking at your medical history, performing a physical exam and considering your symptoms.

A biopsy of cancer cells is usually needed to confirm a lymphoma diagnosis. Many other tests can provide supportive evidence. They include:

Depending on where the cancer is suspected, your doctor may order other specific tests. For example, a procedure called a gastrointestinal endoscopy may be used to help the doctor view abnormal tissue and take a biopsy of your Stomach..

“Treatment for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma depends on a number of factors, including where the cancer is, your overall health, and how advanced the cancer is.”

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are used to treat many types of extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, like those that develop in your:

  • Stomach.
  • Either head or neck.
  • The bones are not empty.
  • There is a breast.

Surgery or immunotherapy may also be considered depending on where cancer develops.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the most common testicular cancer in adults and is usually treated with the removal of the affected testicle.

About two-thirds of cases of a type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are associated with H. pylori infection. Treatment with antibiotics is usually recommended as the first-line therapy.

In a 2021 study, researchers calculated the 3-year overall survival rate based on 220 people with primary extranodal lymphoma. The most common sites of lymphoma in the study were in the digestive system, head and neck, and central nervous system.

The researchers calculated the 3-year overall survival for each risk group they divided into. The researchers used the International Prognostic Index to calculate their risk group.

Risk group 3-year overall survival IPI score
Low 85.2% 0-1
Medium 66.6% 2
Medium-high 61.9% 3
High 45.7% 4-5

The following criteria are points on the IPI.

  • Being older than 60.
  • In stage III or IV, the cancer is in the body.
  • elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase
  • Poor general health.
  • More than one site.

“Most cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are inside the lymphatic area. Extranodal lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops outside of the nodes.”

The most common place for extranodal lymphoma to occur is in the stomach. Researchers have identified many risk factors that may be behind it.

“There are many possible causes of the vague symptoms of extranodal lymphoma. If you notice any new symptoms that could be non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, you should see your doctor as soon as possible.”