Mycosis fungoides is a rare kind of skin cancer called cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Also called granuloma fungoides, this skin disease may look like a fungal rash but is not caused by a fungus.

Over time, mycosis fungoides can get worse. It can spread to other parts of the body in later stages, like the brain, or the scuplture system.

Mycosis fungoides is a life threatening condition. The best health outcomes can be achieved with early diagnosis and treatment.

If you think you may have mycosis fungoides, read on to learn more about it.

Doctors are not sure what causes mycosis fungoides and other types of T-cell lymphomas. T cells can change into cancer cells. T cells are white blood cells that help the immune system.

It is not known what causes T-cells to change. Some studies have shown that certain organisms in the environment may cause mycosis fungoides.

In a 2020 study of people with Sézary syndrome (a related kind of T-cell lymphoma), researchers found that overgrowth of a common bacteria type that lives on the skin called staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) may trigger T-cell changes in some cases.

The people in this study showed improvement in their symptoms when they took antibiotics.

Genetics and other factors may also increase the risk of getting mycosis fungoides. Some types of genetic or chromosomal mutations may increase the risk of getting this skin disease. A clinical study found that 18 percent of patients with mycosis fungoides or Sezary syndrome had the same genetic mutations.

What is Sézary syndrome?

Sézary syndrome is a related condition where irregular T cells from the skin make their way into the blood, according to 2019 research. This sometimes happens in late-stage mycosis fungoides, but people with Sézary syndrome tend to have these cells in the early stages as well.

Sézary syndrome is a more aggressive form of T-cell lymphoma. Its main feature is erythroderma, which is skin redness that covers the whole body. In its early stages, it can look like eczema.

People with Sézary syndrome may have more than one disease.

  • There is some soreness.
  • They were swelling over a lot of their body.
  • It was very It was very severe itching..

Symptoms of mycosis fungoides can look like other skin conditions.

It may look like a There is a skin rash. or a patch of skin for a long time since mycosis fungoides usually worsens slowly. People with this skin cancer may be wrongly diagnosed as having another skin condition.

Symptoms of mycosis fungoides will vary depending on stage you are in. At the beginning, mycosis fungoides may look like a sunburn. It begins on the skin that does not get much sun, like your back, belly, chest, buttocks, or upper thighs.

The color of skin lesions can be red, purple, or brown. You may have.

  • There is redness or irritation to the skin.
  • There are red, brown, and purple blisters.
  • There are white, light brown, or tan spots.
  • There are patches of shiny or scaly.
  • Flat skin.
  • plaques are thicker or raised.
  • Large skin tumors.

The rash will eventually turn into a patch of skin that looks similar to common skin conditions. This stage may look like light spots in some people. This is more common in people with darker skin tones.

plaques that may look like thicker skin are caused by patches eventually raising. These plaques may be itchy and similar to other skin conditions.

Mycosis fungoides can cause more severe skin symptoms as the cancer spreads. This can result in.

  • There is a skin rash.
  • There are patches of skin.
  • plaques
  • Growths on the skin are sore-like.

Mycosis fungoides that have turned into Sézary syndrome may be the later stage.

  • Skin color changes.
  • swelling
  • peeling
  • It was very It was very severe itching..
  • The hands and feet have thicker skin.

There is a feeling of illness in the late stages of mycosis fungoides. Symptoms include:

  • fatigue
  • weakness
  • Difficult swallowing
  • coughing
  • There is a high degree of fever.
  • Anemia.
  • weight loss

Your heart and bicyle systems may be affected in the late stages. If the tumors reach the brain, vision may be affected.

Doctors break mycosis fungoides into stages depending on how much the skin disease has progressed and what other organs are affected. These stages are:

  • Stage 1. Your skin has patches or plaques, but nothing has spread to your blood, lymph nodes, or other organs.
    • 1A. Patches or plaques cover less than 10 percent of your body.
    • 1B. Patches or plaques cover 10 percent or more of your body.
  • Stage 2. In addition to patches or plaques on your skin, your lymph nodes are enlarged but not cancerous.
    • 2A. There are no tumors on your skin.
    • 2B. There are one or more tumors on your skin.
  • Stage 3. More than 80 percent of your skin is affected by redness, patches, plaques, or tumors. Your lymph nodes may be enlarged, but they’re not cancerous.
    • 3A. No cancer cells are in your blood.
    • 3B. A low number of cancerous cells may be in the blood.
  • Stage 4. In addition to most of your skin being affected, you either have a high number of Sézary cells or the cancer has begun to spread.
    • 4A1. Your lymph nodes are enlarged but not cancerous. You also have a high number of Sézary cells in your blood.
    • 4A2. You may have cancer in your lymph nodes, but it has not spread to other parts of your body.
    • 4B. Cancer has spread to other organs, like the liver or spleen.

You may need to have a number of tests before a doctor can diagnose you. These include:

  • There are physical exams.
  • skin biopsies, where doctors examine a small sample of your skin
  • There are either lymph or tissue biopsies.
  • Blood tests.

In some cases, this skin condition will not show up in a skin test. A doctor will need to do more tests.

Specialized tests may look at T cells in the blood and use CT scans to look at the organs. A doctor may also recommend a genetic test.

A doctor can use similar tests to understand what stage mycosis fungoides are.

Treatment for mycosis fungoides depends on the stage of this disease. There are currently more than 30 different types of therapies with more currently undergoing trials. Some treatments help control symptoms like skin There is some soreness., swelling, and itching.

Standard therapies and management for earlier stages of this skin condition involve skin therapies.

The goal of mycosis treatments is to shrink tumors and slow the spread of cancer cells. Treatment may involve both internal and external treatment.

Some therapies and medications for mycosis fungoides and other types of cancers can cause serious side effects that may limit how much treatment you receive.

There is no cure for mycosis fungoides. The skin condition is slow-growing and depends on the stage and treatment.

Almost 70 percent of people with mycosis fungoides are at the early stage when a doctor diagnoses them. This means there’s a higher chance that treatment will be effective with positive health outcomes.

Survival rates for people with mycosis fungoides vary and depend on its stage at diagnosis and treatment. According to a 2020 review of studies, the 5-year survival rates for people with mycosis fungoides by stage were:

  • Stage 1B: 85.8 percent
  • Stage 2B: 62.2 percent
  • Stage 3A: 59.7 percent
  • Stage 3B: 54.0 percent
  • Stage 4A1: 52.5 percent
  • Stage 4A2: 34.0 percent
  • Stave 4B: 23.3 percent

Some treatments can cause side effects that can affect your lifestyle and health.

While still extremely rare, mycosis fungoides is twice as common in men than in women.

It is more likely to happen to people 40 years or older.

While most people with mycosis fungoides are white, the incidence rate is higher among Blacks. According to a 2019 article, those who identified as Black or African American also experienced earlier onset and poorer outlook. The reasons for this racial disparity are not well understood.

Is mycosis fungoides contagious?

“Mycosis fungoides can’t be spread from person to person.”

Is mycosis fungoides hereditary?

Mycosis fungoides is not known to be hereditary. There is a common genetic abnormality found in some people with mycosis fungoides, but it is not likely to be passed down in the family.

How quickly does mycosis fungoides spread?

This type of cutaneous lymphoma is very slow growing. It can take some time to make a correct diagnosis.

Mycosis fungoides is a rare type of T-cell lymphoma that can start on the skin and spread to the body through the Lymph nodes.

There is no cure for this type of skin cancer, but it is growing quickly in the early stages. Treatments can help manage the skin condition.

Mycosis fungoides can be difficult to diagnose because it often looks like other skin conditions. If you notice a rash on your skin, contact a doctor immediately.