Doctors are learning more about how cancer cells grow and why they are different in every person. This has led to the development of drugs that target specific molecules that help cancer cells grow and spread.
Many people who receive a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a difference, or mutation, in the FLT3 gene. This gene instructs a protein receptor that’s important to cell growth.
The FLT3 receptors is a target of new therapies for those with the gene abnormality. The results are promising and can be used with the therapy along with the Chemo.
The bone marrow and blood are the target of the cancer. Myelocytic leukemia is a type of immature white blood cell.
The myeloblasts are abnormal in the case of the leukemia. Leukemia blasts are abnormal white blood cells.
Abnormal cells can build up in the bone marrow and blood, leaving less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This can lead to infections, anemia, and bleeding.
About one-third of people with newly diagnosed AML have a mutation in the FLT3 gene. This gene contains instructions for making a protein called FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3). This protein helps white blood cells grow.
“The FLT3 is a member of the tyrosine kinase receptors group. Molecules attach to cells’receptors.”
Tyrosine kinases are a class of receptors that set off events that are important to how cells grow and survive. The signaling that results from the disease activity can be caused by the deletion of the receptors.
There is a lot of FLT3 on the blasts. The body may make too many white blood cells.
Targeted therapies are used for precision medicine. They allow doctors to change a treatment if it is more likely to work in a specific person.
“Targeted therapies work by acting on the cancer cells’ genes. This is different from the other drugs that kill cells.”
“Since the drugs don’t know which cells are cancer and which are not, they can damage noncancerous cells, which can lead to side effects.”
There are different side effects of targeted therapies. Depending on the drug, the side effects can be different.
Cancer cells can be resistant to therapy. Doctors may recommend both radiation and The treatment is called Chemo. for this form of treatment.
Drugs that target the FLT3 mutation are called FLT3 inhibitors.
There are several targeted therapies in development that focus on the FLT3 mutation. There are two therapies currently approved for use:
- Midostaurin (Rydapt) may be used alongside The treatment is called Chemo. in people newly diagnosed with AML with the FLT3 mutation. It is taken orally twice a day. How often a person needs to take midostaurin may vary depending on what phase of treatment they’re in.
- Gilteritinib (Xospata) is also for people with the FLT3 mutation but is reserved for people whose cancer has come back or for whose cancer previous treatments did not work as hoped. It is taken orally once a day.
Both midostaurin and gilteritinib block FLT3 and other cancer-causing genes.
In order for targeted therapy to work, the person with cancer must also
To see if you might be a candidate for FLT3 therapy, your doctor may want to test a blood or bone marrow sample for the presence of the FLT3 gene mutation.
There are possible side effects of midostaurin and gilteritinib. Before you start treatment, your doctor should speak to you about these.
There are possible side effects of midostaurin.
- Lung problems.
- White blood cell counts and the flu.
- The mouth hurts.
- There are mouth ulcers.
- There is a throbbing head.
- There are nosebleeds.
- It was bruised.
- Pain in the muscles or bones.
- high blood sugar.
- The upper respiratory tract is an area where infections are common.
There are a number of common side effects of Gilteritinib. These include:
- There are some things that can cause nausea, or diarrhea.
- vomiting, dizziness, or There is a throbbing head.
- It can be cough or breathlessness.
- low blood pressure.
- Changes in the function of the body.
- decreased urination
- There is swelling in the limbs.
- Joint or muscle pain.
- It is a problem of tiredness.
- There are mouth or throat sores.
- Eye problems
- There is a rash.
- There is a high degree of fever.
There are also possible side effects that are less common.
- A condition that affects blood cells.
- The brain is affected by the condition of PRES.
- “The heart’s electrical activity is changed by ttc prolongation.”
- Is it inflammation of the pancreas?
If you experience signs of serious side effects, your doctor may recommend you go to the emergency room.
Both midostaurin and gilteritinib have had good success in clinical trials.
A 2017 study on midostaurin involved 717 people with the FLT3 gene mutation. The 4-year survival rate was 51.4 percent for those in the midostaurin group compared to 44.3 percent of those in the placebo group.
Everyone in the study received either standard or placebo.
- 8 percent had no symptoms.
- 22 percent had complete remission with incomplete recovery.
- 10 percent had no symptoms.
Sometimes targeted therapy can work well and then stop. Cancer cells can become resistant to therapy if the target changes inside the body or if the cancer cells find another way to grow.
“If targeted therapy doesn’t work, your doctor can explore other options. Other cancer treatments that do not involve targeted therapy are included. Other treatment options for the disease include:”
- The treatment is called Chemo.
- Stem cell transplant.
- Clinical trials are used to try new treatments.
Doctors can use precision medicine to target treatments that are likely to work.
Therapies for AML that target the FLT3 gene offer new hope to those that carry the gene difference. They hold great promise as a standalone therapy for those with relapsing AML or as a therapy used along with The treatment is called Chemo. for those newly diagnosed.